Crop Production and Management
From Where We Get Food From?
- Plants can make their own food through Photosynthesis.
- We humans cannot produce our own food.
- We humans are just capable of cooking the vegetables that we get from the market.
- We humans get our food from Plants and animals.
- To feed a large population regular production and proper management is needed.
- And then it is distributed on a large scale.
- We also get food from animals.
- When animals are reared on a large scale , then it is called as Animal Husbandary.
What Is Agriculture?
- Agriculture is a method of farming in which soil is cultivated for the growing of crops.
- Animals are also reared in this practice.
- Agriculture is needed for the production of food and various other products.
- 70% of Indian population depends on the practice of agriculture for food and money.
What is a Crop?
- A crop is a product that is produced or cultivated on a large scale.
- The crops are cultivated in agriculture.
- Crops refers to the plants of the same kind or of same species that are cultivated at one place on a large scale.
- For example, crop of sugarcane means that all the plants that are grown on that field are of sugarcane.
- Cereals, vegetables all come under various types of crops.
There are 2 different types of crops based on their season or temperature of growth:-
- Kharif crops are also called as monsoon crops.
- It is cultivated and harvested between June and September.
- Examples of Kharif Crops are: Rice, cotton, pulses, brinjal etc..
- Rice needs a lot of water to grow , that is why it is grown in the rainy season.
- Crops which are cultivated in the winter season and harvested in the Spring season are called Rabi Crops.
- It is cultivated and harvested between the month of October and March.
- Examples of Rabi Crops are:- Wheat, mustard, barley, pea etc..
Practices Of Crop Production:-
- Framers take care of these crop production.
The various Practices needed for crop production are:-
1. Preparation of Soil:
- Soil is need to get loosen so that the roots get penetrated deep into the soil.
- This loosened soil results into the growth of various microorganisms that help in the production of crops.
- Humus is the added to the soil.
- The nutrients of dead animals also get absorbed by the soil which is beneficial for the crops.
- The above process is also known as Ploughing of the soil.
- Soil clumps are broken with the help of plough , hoe and cultivator.
- Good quality of seeds are selected for this process.
- Good quality seed gives high yield.
- Traditional tool and seed drill are used for sowing seeds.
- Traditional tool is shaped like a funnel.
- Tractors are needed for seed drills.
- Seed drills save time and labour.
- We should plant the seeds at a certain distance so that it can get proper sunlight, nutrients and water from the soil.
3. Adding Manures And Fertilizers:
- Adding manures and fertilizers to the soil results into healthy growth of the plants.
- They are needed if there is a continuous cultivation of the crops on the same field.
- This process is also called Manuring.
- Adding manure improves the texture of the soil and also increase the soil water holding capacity.
- Decomposition of plants or animal waste results into an organic substance which is known as manure.
- Fertilizers are man made as it is produced in factories and is rich in a particular type of nutrient.
- Fertilizers are inorganic substances.
- Examples of some fertilizers are: Nitrogen, urea, potash etc..
- We should use these fertilizers in a limited amount as these are chemicals and overdose of it makes the soil infertile.
- Proper consumption of water by the soil is very necessary for healthy crops.
- On dry soil, crops do not get proper nutrients.
- Proper supply of water to the soil is known as Irrigation.
- Irrigation should be done on a regular basis , at least one time a day.
- Various crops needs various amount of water to get cultivated.
- We can water the crops through various sources such as lakes, canals, pipes etc..
- Traditional methods which are used for irrigation such as pulley-system, chain pump , lever system etc..
- Modern methods which are used in irrigation are: Sprinkler system, drip system etc..
5. Protection From Weeds:
- Undesirable plants are called weeds. They could be toxic to us.
- They grow naturally with other plants.
- Weeds should be removed as they take almost half of the nutrients of the soil which is mainly for the healthy crops.
- This process is called weeding.
- Certain ways to remove the weeds are: Tilling , manual removal, seed drill, weedicides etc..
- Weeds should be removed before the production of flowers in it.
- Manual removal needs a ‘khurpi’ for the removal of weeds.
- Weedicides are chemicals used to control weeds. Example : 2,4-D, Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) etc..
- These weedicides are sprayed on the fields to kill the weeds.
- They are made in such a way that they do not harm the original crops.
- When the crop is fully grown up and is ready to cut then this process is known as Harvesting.
- Harvesting of crops is usually done by sickle or by a harvester.
- While doing harvesting the grain seeds are separated from the chaff. This process is known as Threshing.
- After a high yield, we need to store the crops for a longer use.
- And it should be kept away from the moisture and various insects who can eat the crop.
- The crops which are to be kept for storage are dried in sun so that there is no moisture left.
- Generally the grains are stored in jute bags and metallic bins.
- But if the amount of grains to be stored is larger, then it is kept in Silos and Granaries.