Crop Production and Management

agriculture

From Where We Get Food From?

  • Plants can make their own food through Photosynthesis.
  • We humans cannot produce our own food.
  • We humans are just capable of cooking the vegetables  that we get from the market.
  • We humans get our food from Plants and animals.
  • To feed a large population regular production and proper management is needed.
  • And then it is distributed on a large scale.
  • We also get food from animals.
  • When animals are reared on a large scale , then it is called as Animal Husbandary.

What Is Agriculture?

  • Agriculture is a method of farming in which soil is cultivated for the growing of crops.
  • Animals are also reared in this practice.
  • Agriculture is needed for the production of food and various other products.
  • 70% of Indian population depends on the practice of agriculture for food and money.

What is a Crop?

  • A crop is a product that is produced or cultivated on a large scale.
  • The crops are cultivated in agriculture.
  • Crops refers to the plants of the same kind or of same species that are cultivated at one place on a large scale.
  • For example, crop of sugarcane means that all the plants that are grown on that field are of sugarcane.
  • Cereals, vegetables all come under various types of crops.

There are 2 different types of crops based on their season or temperature of growth:-

Kharif Crops

  • Kharif crops are also called as monsoon crops.
  • It is cultivated and harvested between June and September.
  • Examples of Kharif Crops are: Rice, cotton, pulses,  brinjal  etc..
  • Rice needs a lot of water to grow , that is why it is grown in the rainy season.

Rabi Crops

  • Crops which are cultivated in the winter season and harvested in the Spring season are called Rabi Crops.
  • It is cultivated and harvested between the month of  October and March.
  • Examples of Rabi Crops are:- Wheat, mustard, barley, pea etc..

Practices Of Crop Production:-

  • Framers take care of these crop production.

The various Practices needed for crop production are:-

1. Preparation of Soil:

  • Soil is need to get loosen so that the roots get penetrated deep into the soil.
  • This loosened soil results into the growth of various microorganisms that help in the production of crops.
  • Humus is the added to the soil.
  • The nutrients of dead animals also get absorbed by the soil which is beneficial for the crops.
  • The above process is also known as Ploughing of the soil.
  • Soil clumps are broken with the help of plough , hoe and cultivator.

2. Sowing:

  • Good quality of seeds are selected for this process.
  • Good quality seed gives high yield.
  • Traditional tool and seed drill are used for sowing seeds.
  • Traditional tool is shaped like a funnel.
  • Tractors are needed for seed drills.
  • Seed drills save time and labour.
  • We should plant the seeds at a certain distance so that it can get proper sunlight, nutrients and water from the soil.

3. Adding Manures And Fertilizers:

  • Adding manures and fertilizers to the soil results into healthy growth of the plants.
  • They are needed if there is a continuous cultivation of the crops on the same field.
  • This process is also called Manuring.
  • Adding manure improves the texture of the soil and also increase the soil water holding capacity.
  • Decomposition of plants or animal waste results into an organic substance which is known as manure.
  • Fertilizers are man made as it is produced in factories and is rich in a particular type of nutrient.
  • Fertilizers are inorganic substances.
  • Examples of some fertilizers are: Nitrogen, urea, potash etc..
  • We should use these fertilizers in a limited amount as these are chemicals and overdose of it makes the soil infertile.

4. Irrigation:

  • Proper consumption of water by the soil is very necessary for healthy crops.
  • On dry soil, crops do not get proper nutrients.
  • Proper supply of water to the soil is known as Irrigation.
  • Irrigation should be done on a regular basis , at least one time a day.
  • Various crops needs various amount of water to get cultivated.
  • We can water the crops through various sources such as lakes, canals, pipes etc..
  •  Traditional methods which are used for irrigation such as pulley-system, chain pump , lever system etc..
  • Modern methods which are used in irrigation are: Sprinkler system, drip system etc..

5.  Protection From Weeds:

  •  Undesirable plants are called weeds. They could be toxic to us.
  • They grow naturally with other plants.
  • Weeds should be removed as they take almost half of the nutrients of the soil which is mainly for the healthy crops.
  • This process is called weeding.
  • Certain ways to remove the weeds are: Tilling , manual removal, seed drill, weedicides etc..
  • Weeds should be removed before the production of flowers in it.
  • Manual removal needs a ‘khurpi’  for the removal of weeds.
  • Weedicides are chemicals used to control weeds. Example : 2,4-D, Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) etc..
  • These weedicides are sprayed on the fields to kill the weeds.
  • They are made in such a way that they do not harm the original crops.

6. Harvesting:

  • When the crop is fully grown up and is ready to cut then this process is known as Harvesting.
  • Harvesting of crops is usually done by sickle or by a harvester.
  • While doing harvesting the grain seeds are separated from the chaff. This process is known as Threshing.

7. Storage:

  • After a high yield, we need to store the crops for a longer use.
  • And it should be kept away from the moisture and various insects who can eat the crop.
  • The crops which are to be kept for storage are dried in sun so that there is no moisture left.
  • Generally the grains are stored in jute bags and metallic bins.
  • But if the amount of grains to be stored is larger, then it is kept in Silos and Granaries.

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