How do my eyes work?

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When we look at an object, light reflects off of it and enters our eyes. The eye turns this into a signal that it sends to the brain. The brain then identifies the object and tells us what we are seeing.


Eye Colour

The coloured disk at the front of the eyeball is called the iris. It controls how much light enters our eyes and therefore plays a very important role in the process of production of the image.

Light Rays

When we look at an object, light rays get reflected off of its surface, and it enters our eyes.

At the centre of the iris is a tiny hole called the pupil, which is black. The pupil lets light enter into our eyes. It gets bigger in the dark to allow as much light to enter as possible, to aid us in seeing things clearly. The opposite happens when there is a lot of light i.e., our pupils become smaller when we go out in the sun or enter a very well-lit room, in order to control and reduce the amount of light entering our eyes.


The transparent lens in our eye changes its shape so that we can see things that are both near and far away.

Jelly/Semi Fluid

The eye principally is like a squishy ball filled with a jelly-like liquid. This liquid helps it keep its round shape intact.

Retina: Light Detector

The retina is a layer of light-sensitive cells at the back of the eye. When light hits these cells, they send messages to the brain.

Image Created

In reality, the lens bends the light and hence the primary image created is inverted. Our brain turns it the right way around again, and we are able to perceive the image in its erect position.

Towards The Brain

It is the optic nerve that carries signals from the retina to the brain.

Fun Facts

  • It is impossible to sneeze with our eyes open!
  • Six muscles are there to help us move our eyeballs so that we can look from side to side and up and down.

Related Questions:

  1. Which part decides the colour of our eyes?
  2. Why do people have sensitive eyes?
  3. Why do some people have to spectacles?

Objective Questions:

  • ________ is the coloured disk of the eye.
  • The eye gains its shape from the ________ substance it is filled with.
  • The far back end of the eye is called the _______.
  • The primary reflective image that is created in our eye is ________.
  • Eyes can focus on one object when the _________ adjusts its shape.

True Or False:

  1. The optic nerve carries the information from eyes to brain: _______
  2. There are 2 muscles that control the movement of the eye-ball: _______
  3. There is a black hole in the middle of the eye: ______
  4. No object does reflect light from its surface: ___________
  5. Retina acts like a light detector: ________

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