Electric Current and Its Effects


Electric cell

  • An electric cell has two lines.
  • One is shorter and the other line is longer.
  • The longer line represents the positive terminal.
  • The shorter line represents the negative terminal.

What is a Battery?

  • Combination of two or more cells is known as the battery.
  • In a battery the positive terminal of one cell is connected to the negative terminal of the other cell.
  • Battery is a source of energy which converts chemical energy into electrical energy.
  • They are used in remotes, electronic games, tv etc..
  • The batteries used in trucks and inventors are also made from cells. They are made from many cells and are thus termed as a battery.

Electric Current

  • The flow of electrons or the flow of charge is known as Electric Current.
  • The SI unit of Current is Ampere (A).
  • Electric Current is a scalar quantity.

Electric Circuit

  • Electric Circuit is a circuit with various electrical components in which there is a flow of electric current.
  • The various components of electric circuit are an electric cell, an electric bulb, connecting wires and a switch.
  • The thin wire in the bulb is known as filament.
  • When the switch is in on position the circuit from the positive terminal to the negative terminal is complete and is considered as a closed circuit.
  • When the switch is in off position the circuit is incomplete and is said to be open.
  • There is no flow of current when the circuit is open.

Heating effect of electric current

  • When the electric current passes through any conductor it gets hot. This phenomenon is known as the heating effect of electric current. For example; An iron becomes hot when we switch on it.
  • The amount of heat produced in any conductor depends on it’s material, length and thickness. That’s why we don’t use same conductor for various purposes.
  • Some wires start melting when a large amount of electric current is passed through them. Electric fuses are made with the help of these wires.
  • If the wire exceeds the given  safe limit, the wires may become overheated and can cause fire.
  • MCBs( Miniature circuit breakers) are used instead of fuses as it gets automatically turned off when the current exceeds the safe limit.

Magnetic Effect Of Electric Current:

  • When a magnetic field is created around a conductor when electric current is flowing through it then this phenomenon is called as the Magnetic effect of electric current.
  • When electric current passes through a wire it behaves like a magnet.


  • An electromagnet is a magnet made up of soft core by the passage of electric current.
  • They are made strong to lift up various loads.

Uses of electromagnets:

  • They are used to separate magnetic material from the jink.
  • Doctors use them to remove small pieces of magnetic material stuck into the eye and are also used in a MRI.
  • Many toys have magnetic material inside them.
  • They are used inside speakers.

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