Pollution of Air and Water

  • Pollution can be defined as any toxic, harmful component present in the air or in any source of living whether water ,soil etc.
  • Which can completely deteriorate and can affect our lives.
  • Pollution can be classified into many types 
  • The two main types of pollution that we will learn about are:-
  • Air Pollution
  • Water Pollution


Air Pollution

  • Pollutants or harmful toxic particles present in the air around us is referred to as air pollution .
  • Air pollution is caused by the air pollutants which contaminate the air around us.
  • These air pollutants which makes the air toxic can come out through various sources for example:-
  • Smoke coming from the factories
  • Burning garbage
  • Smoke which emits from thousands of vehicle on daily basis
  • Sometimes, the air of an area gets contaminated by volcanic eruptions
  • The ashes and smoke which comes out from a volcanic eruption also deteriorates the quality of air causing a lot of effect on health.
  • The vehicle emits carbon monoxide, a poisonous gas that is cut.
  • Which when entered the system reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of blood.
  • Sulphur dioxide is also released from industries and factories which severely deteriorates the air quality.
  • Another pollutant is chlorofluorocarbons(CFCs) which causes great harm to our ozone layer.
  • The Ozone layer protects us from the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun.
  • Causing danger on survival on the earth.
  • The main sources of these chlorofluorocarbons are refrigerators and air conditioners .
  • The alternatives which used hydro chlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons are less harmful for the environment .

Taj Mahal – A Case Study

  • We all must have heard about the beauty of The Taj Mahal.
  • Which comes in the list of seven wonders of the world.
  • This Air pollution has not left the The Taj Mahal untouched.
  • The pollutants present in the air are discolouring the white beauty 
  • By tarnishing it’s colour white to faded yellow.
  • This is basically a proof that pollution doesn’t only harm living creatures, but also monuments and buildings too.
  • The factories and industries that are located near the monument.
  • They are greatly responsible for this mainly the rubber factories and Mathura refinery which releases pollutants in the air 
  • Pollutants like sulphuric acid and nitric acid
  • The acids which are released mixes with the rain and drops down in the form of acidic rain
  • This acidic rain tarnishes the marble and this phenomenon is also referred as Marble Cancer.
  • In order to preserve the further loss of the beauty the Supreme court of India have taken  a few strict steps 
  • It has ordered the switch to Compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas(LPG).
  • It’s a hope that the beauty of the Taj will be protected by these steps.

Greenhouse Effect

  • The sun rays which come to earth are absorbed by the earth .
  • It helps to keep the earth warm .
  • But a part of it is reflected back by the to the space.
  • The reflected rays are captured by the atmosphere 
  • Which are further used to warm the earth.
  • Like you seen in a greenhouse nursery where the Sun rays are allowed to get in but are not allowed to get out 
  • The trapping of the radiations work in the same way
  • This is why it is called the greenhouse effect.

Global Warming

  • The process of greenhouse effect  is now becoming a threat to life 
  • Excess CO2 in the environment is responsible for this process.
  • As the level of carbon is increasing in the atmosphere due to continuous human activities 
  • And also the forest land is decreasing as we study earlier plants take up CO2 and use it thus decreasing the level of carbon.
  • But due to deforestation the number of plants are decreasing and the level of carbon increases in the atmosphere.
  • Carbon traps the heat unable it to let go in the space 
  • Resulting in the gradual increase of the temperature of earth’s atmosphere.
  • This effect is called as Global warming 
  • The gases like methane ,nitrous oxide, water vapour and carbon all together contribute to this process; this is why they are called greenhouse gases.
  • Global warming has became a life threatening problem for the whole world 
  • Resulting in the  melting of glaciers due to increased temperatures.
  • The main factors which can help us fight this problem is:-
  • Planting more and more trees will help in more and more absorption of carbon.
  • We can switch to compressed natural gas(CNG).
  • We need to stop the activities which gives out excess of carbon in the atmosphere.
  • Small contributions can make a big difference.

Water Pollution

  • Pollutants or harmful toxic particles present in the water which make the water polluted are referred to as water pollution.
  • The substance which contributes in polluting the water are called water pollutants.

There are so  many sources that contributes in pollution the water they are:-

  • Waste and chemicals which come out of the factory are thrown in water bodies.
  • Throwing of garbage.
  • Washing clothes.
  • Sewage waste which directly gets into the water bodies.

Ganga- A case study 

  • Ganga the holy river of India which passes through many states and so many livelihoods are dependent on it.
  • However, a recent study conducted by World wide fund for nature (WWF)
  • Shows that The Ganga is among the ten endangered rivers in the world.
  • It is also the result of our action, the garbage which is thrown by the people of the state through  which it passes.
  • The river is dead in some of the areas due to a high level of pollution

There are many aspiring plans which are made for the protection and stopping the further deterioration of ganga 

  • Along many plans one is the Ganga Action plan .
  • The main reasons which has contributed towards the deterioration of ganga is waste discharged from industries  resulting in water pollution 
  • The various factories include paper factories 
  • Sugar factory
  • These industries usually uses many chemicals in their making process and these leftover chemicals are then discharged in the rivers near the factories .
  • It affects both the water as well as soil

What is potable water? How it gets purified?

Water which can be directly used for drinking purposes is called as potable water

Water is purified through various ways:-

  • Usually first the water is made suitable for drinking 
  • This is done by removing impurities from the water.
  • In households, water is usually purified through boiling method 
  • Boiling method kills the impurities and bacteria present in the water making it suitable for drinking.
  • When the water is made suitable for drinking or when purified with the help of chlorine tablets is referred to as chlorination. 

Ways to reduce Water pollution

  • Strict laws are implemented on industries.
  • So that they do not discharge chemicals into lakes, sea or any other water bodies
  • Water treatment plants should be installed in industries.
  • Reduce Reuse or Recycle should be implemented in day to day life.
  • Also, at our level which should try to save as much water as possible
  • Like closing the tab of water while brushing  and many others

We should try to avoid all the things around us which can cause harm to our surroundings.

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