What are bones made of?

The ability of human body to stand and move around is majorly because of the presence of bones in human body.


What are bones?

The hard, dense and calcified tissue which forms an integral (essential) part of human skeleton.

What are bones made up of?

Bones are made up of a framework of a particular type of protein called collagen and a mineral called calcium phosphate. Calcium phosphate makes the framework of the bone strong.

What are different types of bones?

In the human skeleton, there are four types of bones found named:

  • Long bones- Long bones provide strength, structure and mobility to the human body. They have a shaft and two ends as their structure. The femur (thigh bone) is an example of a long bone.
  • Short bones– Short bones provide strength and stability to the skeleton. They can be classified by their shape as they are as wide as their length. The carpal bones (a group of eight bones present in the wrist) are the example of short bones.
  • Flat bones– Flat bones work to protect organs, or they can be found where there is a need for the attachment of muscle through a flat surface. They are thin and flat. Ribs are an example of flat bones.
  • Irregular bones– Irregular bones have more than one function in the human body. They provide protection to organs, they serve as an attachment point for few muscles and they also work as a support for the pharynx and trachea. They come in different shapes and size and therefore are given the name irregular. The vertebrae are an example of irregular bones.

Functions of bones in the human body:

  • The mechanical function of bones is to provide structure to the body,  protection to visceral organs and help in locomotion (movement).
  • Bones also act as a storing bank which stores some essential (important) minerals required by the human body such as calcium and phosphate.
  • The white blood cell, Red blood cell and platelets are created in the bone marrow part of the bone.  Aged blood cells are also destroyed in the bone marrow.

Did you know:

  • Approximately 5% of weight in a healthy human adult comes from bone marrow.
  • Tendons are the elastic tissue that connects the bone and muscle for the normal functioning of joints.
  • A newborn baby has more bones than an adult human being.

Additional Questions:

  1. What does the bone of the vertebral column protect?
  2. What is the name of cage made by ribs, sternum and vertebral column for the protection of the heart and lungs?

True or False:

  1. Bones are soft tissues that help in breathing.
  2. A femur is a type of irregular bone.
  3. Bone Marrow is found in the lungs.
  4. Calcium Phosphate makes the bone strong.
  5. Ribs are an example of flat bone.

Objective Quiz:

  1. _________ is a type of short bone.
    1. Carpal.
    2. Femure.
    3. Carpel.
    4. Both a) and c).
  2. Bones are made up of a framework of a particular type of protein called ________.
    1. Collagen.
    2. Keratin
    3. Perforative
    4. Strive
  3. Aged red blood cells are destroyed in _______ part of the bone.
    1. Bone marrow.
    2. Shaft.
    3. The proximal end (Proximal- towards the body).
    4. The distal end (Distal- away from the body).
  4. Femur is a type of ________.
    1. Long bone.
    2. Short bone.
    3. Hip bone.
    4. Flat bone.
  5. Bones also store essential minerals such as ________.
    1. Calcium.
    2. Phosphate.
    3. Sugar.
    4. Both 1) and 2).

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