Conservation of Plants and Animals

What is the purpose of making National Parks, Wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves?

  • The purpose of Making National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and Biosphere Reserves is to take care of the endangered animals and plants.
  • They try to provide the animals and plants a natural environment.



  • Cutting down trees and using it for any other purpose is called as deforestation.
  • Trees are cut to use it for stationary purposes, in the making of buildings, in the making of furniture, for fuel etc..
  • Deforestation also happens due to natural forest fires or in drought condition ( Reduction in rainfall leads to droughts).
  • Trees are very important to us as it regulate the earth’s temperature.
  • Deforestation increases the temperature and thus results in global warming and it also increases the pollution level as trees helps to clean the air.
  • Rainfall and soil fertility reduces due to deforestation.
  • Deforested area has a high risk of floods as deforestation decreases the water holding capacity of the soil.
  • Fewer trees leads to soil erosion.
  • Desertification is the condition when the top layer of the soil gets removed and the fertile land gets converted into desserts.

Conservation of forest and wildlife:

  • The surface of the earth occupied by living organisms are termed as biosphere.
  • To protect our plants and animals or our flora and fauna protected areas are made.
  • These protected areas are known as Wildlife Sanctuaries, Biosphere Reserves and National Parks.
  • Areas where animals are protected are known as Wildlife Sanctuaries.
  • Black Buck, White eyed buck, rhinoceros etc.. are some animals who are kept in a wild life sanctuary.
  • Areas reserved for wildlife where they can use the habitats are known as National Parks.
  • Large areas of protected land for conservation of wild life and of  tribals  living in that area are termed as Biosphere Reserves.
  • Biospheres helps to maintain the biodiversity and the culture of that area.

Flora and Fauna:

  • The plants found in a particular area are termed as Flora.
  • The animals found in a particular area are termed as Fauna.

Endemic Species:

  • The species which are found only in a particular area and not in other area are known as Endemic Species.
  • Species are a group of population which are capable of interbreeding.
  • There are many plants and animals which are found in a particular state or country and not in other states or countries.
  • Sal is an example of endemic flora.
  • Bison is an example of endemic Fauna.

Endangered Species:

  • Animals who are on the verge of extinction are known as Endangered Species.
  • Tiger is an example of Endangered Species.


  • An ecosystem is made up of all living and non-living components.

Red Data Book:

  • Red Data Book is the source book which keeps a record of all the endangered species.


  • The phenomenon of the movement of the species from it’s own natural habitat to some other habitat for a particular time period every year.


  • Planting trees which are cut down is termed as Reforestation.
  • Reforestation takes place naturally also if the deforested area remains untouched.

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