The person’s internal condition is overlooked by Skinner’s reinforcement theory of motivation, which means that he doesn’t consider their inner sentiments and motivations. Instead, this idea is entirely concerned with what transpires after an individual act. Thus, according to Skinner, the organization’s external environment must be planned successfully and favorably to inspire employees. This idea is a powerful tool for examining how individuals’ behavior is controlled. It does not, however, concentrate on what makes people behave the way they do. Burrhus Frederic Skinner, sometimes known as B.F. Skinner was an American psychologist best recognized for his ground-breaking views on behavior. Skinner and his colleagues put out the Reinforcement Theory of Motivation. It asserts that conduct is a function of its results; an individual will repeat behavior that produces favorable results and avoid behavior that produces unfavorable outcomes. The “law effect” is another name for this phenomenon.
The Reinforcement Theory rejects a person’s intrinsic motives in favor of concentrating on external elements. For example, many firms invest time and energy into enhancing the office environment. A positive work atmosphere may inspire people and raise their spirits. The Reinforcement Theory transforms into a tool for influencing individual behavior differently.
The management employs the following techniques to regulate employee behavior
Positive reinforcement refers to rewarding someone when they behave in an expected and appropriate way. As an illustration, thank an employee right away for arriving early for work. The likelihood of repeating the problematic behavior will rise as a result. The reward is a helpful reinforcer, but not always. The reward may only be considered a positive reinforcer if the employees’ behavior changes. A behavior is stimulated by positive reinforcement. It should be remembered that the more impulsively a reward is given, the more reinforcing value it possesses.
Negative reinforcement refers to rewarding a worker by reducing unfavorable or adverse effects. One can utilize positive and negative reinforcement to increase desired or needed behavior.
Punishment: This refers to eliminating benefits to reduce the likelihood that undesired behavior will be repeated. In other terms, punishment refers to the imposition of unpleasant consequences for engaging in unpleasant behavior. For instance, suspending a worker who disobeyed company policy, a Positive reward from an alternate source can offset punishment.
Extinction: This word suggests a lack of support. In other words, extinction reduces the likelihood of undesirable behavior by eliminating its incentive. For instance, if an employee no longer feels appreciated and praised for his hard work, he may believe that his actions have no positive effect. Extinction could inadvertently reduce beneficial behavior.
Parenting experts have found that using positive reinforcement is a very successful strategy. Children are more likely to finish a task or acquire a behavior if a reward is given following the desired answer. Here are a few instances of the same.
- After finishing their studies, they prepare their favorite cuisine.
- If they tidy their room, I’ll take them to the park.
- Every time they figure out a math issue, applaud them!
- Granting a request if it is made nicely
Linking behavior to enjoyable incentives will motivate your youngster to repeat that behavior. Rewards, though, need not always be purely materialistic.
If a youngster behaves well, a reward may be as easy as patting them on the back to show them that you are paying attention and appreciating the proper behaviors.
Parents sometimes confuse negative reinforcement with punishment, although that is not the case in this instance. Negative reinforcement is quite effective and speeds up learning a behavior. Children frequently finish their job to escape unpleasant consequences. Here are a few instances of the same:
- Putting a lot of effort into your studies to avoid failing your examinations.
- After playing, one should put their toys back where they belong to prevent loss or misplacing.
- Can avoid losing their T.V. privileges by completing their assignments on time.
- Good eating to fend against illness.
Negative reinforcement is not really “negative” but it is all about subtraction. Parents can employ these two reinforcement approaches since they are effective and valuable. They also avoid using harsh or harmful tactics like punishment, which harms children’s emotions. But parents shouldn’t rely just on one approach. As and when necessary, it’s crucial to transition between these two approaches.
Concentrate on one habit at a time
Every learner exhibits a variety of behaviors. Thus parents must focus on particular forms of reward for particular actions. Focusing on just one or two actions at a time can help the youngster understand the reward associated with each action. This might be accomplished by developing unique reward schemes for every behavior.
Utilize the most appropriate type of reinforcement.
What inspires us might not inspire a child since kids think differently than adults. Therefore, choosing the appropriate reinforcing tool is crucial. One of the effective methods would be to provide the youngster with a range of possibilities and let them choose the one for themselves.
Deliver and keep track of the appropriate reinforcement
When the behavior is already established, introducing the reinforcer won’t have the desired outcome. Therefore, providing the appropriate reinforcement at the appropriate moment is crucial. Additionally, employing the same kind of reinforcement over an extended length of time will cause satiation. Therefore, it is important to assess and monitor the reinforcement’s efficiency and change it before it becomes satiating.
A preference for non-tangible benefits above physical ones.
Praise is more effective than rewards, gifts, or allowance. This is because intrinsic motivation, which doesn’t include tangible benefits, always lasts longer than extrinsic motivation.
Congratulate them on their efforts rather than merely the outcomes
Both efforts and outcomes are crucial. Therefore, it’s just as vital to compliment children on their attempts as it is to recognize their successes. For instance, it is more effective to say, “I am proud of you for studying so hard,” rather than, “Well done for getting such fantastic scores.”
The following are some simple examples of positive reinforcement utilized and are simply transferable to parenting situations:
- Gratitude and appreciation
- Public acclaim and encouraging letters to parents and teachers
- High-fives, handshakes, grins, and pats on the back
- Becoming a teacher’s assistant or selecting classroom duties
- Reading, crafting, playing sports, or engaging in another favorite pastime with a loved someone
- Extra credit or bonus points for assignments Posting completed work in a prominent location A night without homework
- Optional Activities
- Time or lunch with a particular someone greater recess periods